Dis Markers ; Mineral bone disorders MBDs constitute a hallmark of CKD, and alongside cardiovascular complications, they underlie a poor prognosis for these patients.
Thus, our study focused on novel CKD biomarker patterns and their impact on the clinical staging of the disease. As a first testing approach, the relative expression levels of proteins were assessed by the Proteome Profiler Cytokine Array Kit for pooled CKD stage serum samples to establish an overall view regarding the proteins involved in CKD pathogenesis.
Among the molecules that displayed significant dysregulation in the CKD stages, we further explored the involvement of Dickkopf-related protein 1 Dkk-1a recognised inhibitor of the Wnt signalling pathway, and hpv virus life cycle crosstalk with 1,25OH2D3 calcitriol as new players in renal bone and vascular disease.
The serum levels of these two molecules were quantified by an ELISA 76 samplesand the results reveal decreasing circulating levels of Dkk-1 and calcitriol in advanced CKD stages, with their circulating expression showing a downward trend as the CKD develops.
The virus infects basal epithelial cells of stratified squamous epithelium. HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins are the critical molecules in the process of malignant tumour formation. Interacting with various cellular proteins, E6 and E7 influence fundamental cellular functions like cell cycle regulation, telomere maintenance, susceptibility to apoptosis, intercellular adhesion and regulation of immune responses.
Our results show that the molecules involved in orchestrating the inflammatory response, interleukin-6 IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha TNFαas well as the mineral biomarkers osteoprotegerin Hpv virus life cycle OCosteopontin OPNand fibroblast growth factor 23 FGFcorrelate with Dkk-1 and calcitriol, raising the possibility of them being potential useful CKD biomarkers.
These results reveal the impact of different biomarker patterns in CKD staging and severity, thus opening up novel approaches to be explored in CKD clinical management.