The aim of this study is to present the evolution of cervical cancer in Bucharest, based on incidence, prevalence and mortality routine statistics, in the context of the health programs unfolded by the authorities or by other parties as corporate social responsibility CRS factors.
Materials and method. This is a correlation between a study and review of the latest literature using data bases on cervical cancer and the prevalence of its risk factors. Causes of uterine cancer hpv Bucharest, it was initiated an awareness program for female population, and inwith the Government support, there was initiated a vaccination program against HPV, but the vaccination rate was under expectations.
All these efforts in terms of public funds and the cured persons mobilization did not succeed to change the incidence and the mortality by cervical cancer.
Implicarea genomului papiloma virusului uman (hpv) în oncogeneza cancerului cervical
Keywords awareness campaigns, cervical cancer, prevention Rezumat Cancerul de col uterin este una dintre principalele cauze ale deceselor care pot fi evitate în societatea noastră prin proceduri preventive. Vaccinarea împotriva HPV şi screeningul sunt metode cuprinse în planurile Ministerului Sănătăţii şi au rolul de a reduce incidenţa acestui tip de cancer. Scopul acestui studiu este prezentarea evoluţiei cancerului de col uterin în Bucureşti, bazată pe statisticile de rutină privind mortalitatea, incidenţa şi prevalenţa, în contextul programelor de sănătate desfăşurate de autorităţi sau de alte părţi causes of uterine cancer hpv factor de responsabilitate socială.
Materiale şi metodă.
Involvement of Human Papillomavirus genome in oncogenesis of cervical cancer
În Bucureşti a fost iniţiat un program de conştientizare pentru populaţia feminină, iar în anulcu sprijinul guvernului, a fost iniţiat un program de vaccinare împotriva HPV, însă rata de vaccinare a fost sub aşteptările iniţiatorilor acestui program.
Toate eforturile privind mobilizarea acestor fonduri publice, cât şi mobilizarea persoanelor vindecate nu au reuşit însă să schimbe ratele incidenţei şi mortalităţii cancerului de col uterin.
Vaginal Cancer Linked to Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
Cuvinte cheie campanii de conştientizare cancer de col uterin prevenţie Background Cervical cancer causes of uterine cancer hpv one of the major causes of avoidable deaths in our society. However, more thannew cases and more causes of uterine cancer hpvdeaths occur worldwide every year, according to Globocan 1. Cervical cancer is the second cause of cancer in women, after breast cancer In Romania, the importance of this public health problem is huge, cervical cancer being responsible for new cases of disease and around deaths every year, with an incidence and mortality rate higher than global average The disparities are even larger compared to WHO European Region, where cervical cancer is the fifth cause of incidence Figure 1 According to what we know, cervical cancer can be prevented or cured if the diagnose is established in an early stage.
Cytology screening every three to five years can prevent up to four out of five cases of cervical cancer, but such benefits can only be achieved if screening is provided in organized, population-based programs and with quality assurance at all levels.
Materials and method This study is a review of the evolution of cervical cancer in Bucharest the capital of Romania on the background of the preventive interventions meant to create awareness among female population.
Many awareness campaigns were developed in Bucharest, targeting especially the adult female population, but also the young girls.
These interventions presented the magnitude of cervical cancer impact on the personal health, the potential to avoid or to cure this disease in certain conditions, and the individual choices to keep the reproductive health for a female. They were financed part by the Ministry of Health, part by the economic sector as part of the corporate social responsibility CSR.
Ina vaccination program against Human Papillomavirus was started with the Government supportbut the vaccination rate was much lower than expected. Furthermore, during all causes of uterine cancer hpv years, a screening program for cervical cancer was also financed by the Government, but unfortunately this program was opportunistic, not population based.
Figure 2 All these efforts in terms of public funds and health providers mobilization did not succeed to change the incidence and the mortality by cervical cancer.
Implicarea genomului papiloma virusului uman (hpv) în oncogeneza cancerului cervical
The lowest number of deaths due to cervix cancer was registered in and there has been a steady small increase ever since. Cervix cancer seemed to be a more serious burden of death in fertile women Figure 3.
Figure 3 The number of women in Romania was higher than that of men in In Romania, inthere were registered 19 million people with stable residence in the country. Of this total, women were 9. Thus, inthe female population causes of uterine cancer hpv Today there arewomen living in the capital, less than in when more than a million women lived here 3.
The role of the midwife or nurse in the relationship with the patient The role of the nurse is to help people in a state of illness to maintain and regain their health by performing the duties they could have performed alone if they had the strength, determination and useful knowledge.
The medical assistant must perform his functions in order to help the patient overcome the deadlock and regain his independence according to the affected need. These functions can causes of uterine cancer hpv of an independent nature when assisting the patient on his own initiative through comfort care, depending on the physical or mental illness, social status, age, problems that he cannot handle himself; establishes trusting relationships with the patient and caregivers, listens to the patient and tries to support him by providing useful information.
Breakdown by sex and sector in Bucharest in The health education that the nurse gives to the patients is about signs that may appear in the evolution of the beginning phases or during the evolution of the disease, these having an important role and the patients must know about them.
These signs in particular are important for patients from rural areas or for patients who do not regularly attend medical investigations and who must recognize a serious condition in order to benefit from urgent medical care.
As methods of educating the female population, the nurse instructs them to recognize the following signs and symptoms: leukorrhea, which in cancer is present and usually occurs before bleeding, and which may have the appearance of a flesh wash and characteristic odor.
We, the nurses, inform the patient that the pain in advanced forms of cancer can be intermittent or continuous and may manifest as a tension or embarrassment in the lower abdomen accompanied by fever, nausea and even vomiting.
Other signs that may appear are bleeding, which, depending on the tumor, have specific characteristics.
In cervical cancer, more cancer benign definitie, it is represented by reduced bleeding quantitatively at sexual contact or after intravaginal washes. Other manifestations in neoplasms are weight loss, polakiuria, dysuria and nocturia, causes of uterine cancer hpv in ovarian and uterine cancer, intestinal colic, rectal tenesmus and constipation.
Interventions of the midwife or nurse in the cervical cancer patient The nurse advises the patient to come periodically to the gynecological check-up for an early detection of the disease.
Table 1. The nurse provides postoperative surveillance to prevent complications. Figure 5 The nurse advises the patient for problems that may arise, regarding anxiety, fear of surgery, possible alteration of the sexual activity produced by treatment, decreased libido and loss of self-esteem caused by the mutilating operations hysterectomy, anexectomy 5.
Pentru majoritatea oamenilor, virusul papilomavirus uman HPV dispare de la sine, în mod spontan. Dar pentru alții care nu elimină virusul, anumite tipuri de HPV pot provoca cancere cervicale, vaginale și vulvare la femei și cancer anal la bărbați și femei. Alte tipuri pot provoca veruci genitale atât la bărbați, cât și la femei. Infecția cu acest virus este comună. Adresează-te unui medic și informează-te despre vaccinarea anti-HPV!
Within the preventive procedures associated with health education, the methods that can be applied to a large population are HPV screening and vaccination.
These methods are included in the plans of the Ministry of Health to reduce the incidence of this type of cancer.
At present, there are known over strains, and we mention those with potential oncogenic risk 16, 18, 31 and the non-oncogenic strains 6, 11 6. Studies linking HPV to In order to ensure a sufficient duration of specific antibodies and the protection of each body against HPV infection, the vaccination is performed at the age of years old, before the beginning of sexual life, in order to reduce the rate of cervical cancer development in the future 7.
The virus infects basal epithelial cells of stratified squamous epithelium. HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins are the critical molecules in the process of malignant tumour formation. Interacting with various cellular proteins, E6 and E7 influence fundamental cellular functions like cell cycle regulation, telomere maintenance, susceptibility to apoptosis, intercellular adhesion and regulation of immune responses.
In a final comprehensive look, we note the key importance of the nurse involved in these health programs. The professional training of the licensed midwives and assistants confers the solidity of the information they transmit to the patients and professionalism in the application of the programs of the Ministry of Health in the fight against cervical cancer.